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Outline of the yeast MAP kinase pathways, illustrating similarities and difference in architecture.

Gpa1p, Ste4p, and Ste18p form a heterotrimeric G-protein; Ras2p is one of two yeast Ras proteins. Possible mechanism of feedback control of the HOG pathway, indicating protein phosphatases whose production is stimulated after osmotic shock.

However, it is now recognized that controlled production of ROS has significant signaling functions, for example, in pathogen defense, in the regulation of stomatal closure, or in cell-to-cell signaling.

ROS formation in subcellular compartments is critical to act as “alarm” signal in the response to stress, and the concept of ROS as primarily signaling substances has emerged.

Moreover, plants exposed to pathogens can develop an immune memory that lasts for weeks or even in the subsequent generation. At the cell surface, microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI).

Adapted pathogens can normally overcome MTI by delivering effectors directly into plant cells.

Traditionally ROS have been considered as harmful, accidental byproducts of cellular functions involving electron transport chains or electron transfer.

The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila manipulates autophagy by delivering the effector protein Rav Z to deconjugate Atg8/LC3 proteins coupled to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on autophagosomal membranes.

To understand how Rav Z recognizes and deconjugates LC3-PE, we prepared semisynthetic LC3 proteins and elucidated the structures of the Rav Z: LC3 interaction.

The involvement of ROS in several developmental and inducible processes implies that there must be coordinated function of signaling network(s) that govern ROS responses and subsequent processes.

The air pollutant ozone can be used as a useful tool to elucidate the function of apoplastic ROS: O degrades in cell wall into various ROS which are interpreted as ROS with signaling function inducing downstream responses.

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